- Atalla, M. M. and K. N. El Din (1993).
Isolation and identification of fungi associated with feed stuffs
and determination of mycotoxin producing ability. Egyptian
Journal of Microbiology. 28(2): 193-199.
- A general survey was carried out during
the period 1987/88 on the microflora associated with animal feedstuffs
collected from different factories in east Alger. A total number
of 139 fungal isolates were obtained and classified in 12 different
genera, namely: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium,
Cordana, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Mycotypha,
Penicillium, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Rhopalomyces. Aspergillus
isolates were found most widely distributed in the samples. They
were 68.3% of the total isolates obtained. Aspergillus ochraceus
was 36.8% of the Aspergillus isolated and 25% of the total
fungal isolates. Isolates were tested for their ability to produce
antibiotics in culture media. All were capable of producing different
levels of toxins active against gram positive and gram negative
bacteria. Subsequent investigations have revealed that the majority
of fungal organisms included in the genera Aspergillus
and Penicillium are able to produce ochratoxins.
Braun, U. (1994). Studies on Ramularia and allied genera
(VII). Nova Hedwigia. 58(1-2): 191-222.
- The present paper contains taxonomic
notes on various species of the Ramularia/Cercosporella
complex. The following new species and varieties are described:
Cladosporium mimulicola spec. nov., Entylomella
veronicae-cymbalariae spec. nov., Neoramularia oregana
spec. nov., Phacellium hydrangeacearum spec. nov., P.
sessile spec. nov., Pseudodidymaria clematidis
spec. nov., Ramularia anaphalidicola spec. nov., R.
aristolochiae spec. nov., R. arnicalis-montanae spec.
nov., R. caricis spec. nov., R. mimuli var. proliferata
var. nov., R. lomatiicola spec. nov., R. osmorrhizae
spec. nov., R. poagena spec. nov., R. pseudorubella
spec. nov. and R. serotina var. stomaticola var.
nov. The new genus Monodidymaria gen. nov. (type species:
Ramularia canadensis) is introduced. Furthermore, 37 new
combinations and new names are proposed. The present paper, the
final issue of this series, is a preparatory work for a monograph
of the Ramularia/Cercosporella complex. Some new taxa
are described. The taxonomic status of numerous additional species
is discussed and new combinations are introduced. These taxa
are only briefly described. Detailed descriptions will be published
in the monographic treatment of Ramularia, Cercosporella
and allied genera.
Braun, U. and T. Rogerson Clark (1995). Phytoparasitic Hyphomycetes
from Utah (USA): II. Sydowia. 47(2): 141-145.
- Cladosporium agoseridis
sp. nov. is described and the new combination Passalora platyspora
is introduced. Some species new to North America and new hosts
Curtis Mark, D., J. Gore, et al. (1994). The phylogeny of
the tomato leaf mould fungus Cladosporium fulvum syn.
Fulvia fulva by analysis of rDNA sequences. Current
Genetics. 25(4): 318-322.
- The nucleotide sequence of part of
the ribosomal DNA from races of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium
fulvum and other Cladosporium species have been determined.
Comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1
and ITS2) of several C. fulvum races showed complete sequence
homology suggesting a recent evolutionary divergence. Comparisons
of these nucleotide sequences in the ITS region with those of
other Cladosporium species showed the close relationship
within the Cladosporium genus. Using the nucleotide sequence
of part of the 18s ribosomal subunit from these isolates and
comparing them with sequences of some Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes
and Chytridiomycetes, obtained from GenBank, we infer the phylogeny
of the Cladosporium species studied here. Our analysis
shows that the Cladosporia form a monophyletic group which
falls within the order Ascomycotina.
Cvetnic, Z. and S. Pepeljnjak (1997). Distribution and mycotoxin-producing
ability of some fungal isolates from the air.” Atmospheric
Environment. 31(3): 491-495.
- Research was carried out on presence
and prevalence of common fungal air spores at locations in Croatia.
The sampling method employed in the study was by exposure 350
of Petri agar plates to the air for 10 min. Approximately 3400
colonies were found and mould spores belonging to 22 fungal genera
were identified. Cladosporium (44.7%), Penicillium
(34.4%), Alternaria (26.3%), Aspergillus (21.6%)
and Absidia (12.2%) were the most prevalent fungi encountered.
Investigation of toxigenic potential of airborne fungi isolates
of genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma showed
16.9% mycotoxin-producing strains. The production of aflatoxin
B-1 by i, sterigmatocystin by i, zearalenon and T-2 toxin by
i and diacetoscirpenol by strains of T. viride were obtained.
David, J. C. (1995). IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria
No. 1227: Cladosporium Magnusianum. Mycopathologia.
- No Abstract available.
David, J. C. (1997). A contribution to the systematics of Cladosporium:
Revision of the fungi previously referred to Heterosporium.
International Mycological Institute Mycological Papers.
- A revision of the 139 names that have
been referred to Heterosporium Klotzsch ex Cooke since
its introduction in 1877 is presented for the first time. The
generic concept of Cladosporium Link: Fr. is redefined,
based on data from morphological studies at both electron and
light microscopic levels, and a subgeneric classification is
proposed. Heterosporium is recognized at the subgeneric
rank as Cladosporium subgen. Heterosporium
(Klotzsch ex Cooke) J.C. David stat. nov., but many fungi originally
described in Heterosporium are reduced to synonymy with
known species in subgen. Cladosporium. This has
resulted in a partial review of the more common species of Cladosporium,
most notably the C. herbarum aggregate. A third
subgenus, Bistratosprium J.C. David subgen. nov., is described
for an unusual species with multi-layered conidial walls. Twenty-one
species of Cladosporium are treated, with descriptions
of telemorphs were available, and keys to the subgenera and species
are provided. The interpretation of many names is secured through
lectotypification. Further taxa are excluded from Cladosporium
and, where possible, they have been fully investigated to determine
their appropriate placement. One new genus (Laocoon) and
one new species (C. heleophilum) are described;
six new combinations (Cladosporium auriculae, C. coryphae,
C. ferox, C. robiniae, C. trillii and Laocoon paradoxus)
De Hoog, G. S., E. Gueho, et al. (1995). Nutritional physiology
and taxonomy of human-pathogenic Cladosporium-xylohypha
species. Journal of Medical & Veterinary Mycology.
- Physiological profiles of type, authentic
and some additional isolates of CladosporiumXylohypha
species of purported herpotrichiellaceous relationship are established.
This group comprises melanized catenate hyphomycetes which are
prevalently found on the human host. The species are excluded
from the genus Cladosporium and are classified
in the genus Cladophialophora. Taeniolella boppii
is also transferred to this genus. Cladosporium bantianum
( = Xylohypha emmonsii) and C. trichoides
are considered conspecific and are now referred to as Cladophialophora
bantiana. Meso-erythritol, L-arabinitol, ethanol and growth at
40 degree C are found to be the most useful criteria for species
distinction. The species Cladosporium carrionii
is found to be heterogeneous. The anamorph of the saprophytic
ascomycete Capronia pilosella is morphologically similar
to an authentic strain of Cladosporium carrionii,
but physiologically distinct. A diagnostic key for the recognized
Cladophialophora species and to morphologically similar taxa
Dugan Frank, M. and G. Roberts Rodney (1994). Morphological
and reproductive aspects of Cladosporium macrocarpum and
C. herbarum from bing cherry fruits. Mycotaxon.
- Absence of major morphological discontinuities
characterized a series of isolates of Cladosporium macrocarpum
and C. herbarum. Conidial size, degree of septation,
and relative nodosity of conidiophores all decreased along a
series from the former to the latter species. Termini of the
series were well separated morphologically and morphometrically.
Isolates toward the macrocarpum terminus of the series produced
pseudothecia under experimental conditions, whereas isolates
toward the herbarum terminus produced sclerotium-like bodies.
Based upon the observed morphological continuum from C.
herbarum to C. macrocarpum and lacking
any evidence that gene flow is restricted between the two taxa,
we accept the previously proposed synonymy of C. macrocarpum
with C. herbarum.
Dugan Frank, M., G. Roberts Rodney, et al. (1995). New and
rare fungi from cherry fruits. Mycologia. 87(5): 713-718.
- Capronia hystrioides sp. nov. (anamorph Phaeoramularia hachijoensis)
was isolated from cherry fruit. Also isolated were Sporormiella
subticinensis comb. nov., Leptodiscella africana,
and Cladosporium malorum, a synonym of C.
Eltem, R. and M. Oner (1995). Mold flora on natural block
olives in brine. Turkish Journal of Biology. 19(1): 11-17.
- The mold flora of 55 different samples
of natural black olives in brine collected from the Aegean and
Marmara regions of Turkey belonging to the 1987, 1988 production
years were examined. A total of 30 morphologically different
mold strains were isolated by using "dextrose-peptone agar"
medium with streptomycin. Fifteen of these isolates were identified
as Penicillium, eleven as Aspergillus, two as Alternaria
and one as Cladosporium. The average mold count
of the examined olives was 5.80 times 10-4 cfu/g and the average
percentage of infected olives was 41%.
Ghildiyal, J. C. (1993). Mycoflora of decomposing leaf litter
in a subtropical freshwater swamp. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences India Section B 63(2): 207-211.
- Fungi associated with the angiospermic
litter under the process of decomposition in a freshwater swamp
were isolated by direct observations and culture plate method.
34 fungal species representing 19 genera were isolated during
the study. Some fungal species were specific to the litter of
a particular plant species. The mycoflora was composed of 23.5%
phycomycetes, 3.0% ascomycetes and 73.5% deuteromycetes.
Gravesen, S., C. Frisvad Jens, et al. Microfungi. Microfungi.
Gravesen S. Frisvad J C. Samson R A. (Authors) (35 Norre Sogade:
This handbook describes the most common filamentous fungi, the
molds, encountered in daily life. The work provides a general
introduction to the molds, including the definition of fungus,
biodeterioration, biotechnology, toxins and toxicoses, allergies,
infections, and descriptions of 34 common microfungi belonging
to the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Botrytis,
Candida, Cladosporium, Emericella, Epicoccum, Eurotium,
Fusarium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis,
Stachybotrys, Thamnidium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, and Wallemia.
Each description contains the scientific name, the derivation
of the scientific name, synonymy, a color plate of the mold cultured
in culture medium, an electron micrograph of the organism, a
complete written description, ecology, metabolites, damaging
effects, and practical application or uses. Color photographs,
diagrams, and line-drawings further supplement the text.
Kuznetsova Tatyana, A., A. Afiyatullov Shamil, et al. (1998).
Sterols from a marine isolate of the fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum
Penz. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 26(3):
- No Abstract available.
Okada, K., K. Takizawa, et al. (1996). Ubiquinone systems
of the genus Cladosporium and morphologically similar taxa.”
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. 16(1): 39-43.
- The ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) systems
of 14 species of Cladosporium were determined.
The genus was divided into two groups based on the distribution
of the major ubiquinones, Q-10 and Q-10(H-2). The group containing
Q-10 consisted of six species, four of which were human pathogens,
whereas the group containing Q-10(H-2) consisted of eight plant
pathogenic and/or saprophytic species. The results presented
here agree with phylogenetic and physiological studies which
have shown that the human-pathogenic species of Cladosporium
represent a homogeneous, cohesive group.
Ostrowski, R., B. Meyer, et al. (1998). Isolation, identification,
and characterization of the allergenic potential of molds in
house dust. Zentralblatt fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin.
- No Abstract available.
Sunesson Anna, L., H. J. Vaes Wouter, et al. (1995). Identification
of volatile metabolites from five fungal species cultivated on
two media. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 61(8):
- Five fungal species, Aspergillus
versicolor, Penicillium commune, Cladosporium cladosporioides,
Paecilomyces variotii, and Phialophora fastigiata,
were cultivated on two media, malt extract agar and dichloran
glycerol agar. Culture flasks provided with inlet and outlet
tubes were used and purified, and humidified air was constantly
led through the flasks. Air samples from the cultures were sorbed
on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption- gas chromatography.
The produced volatile metabolites were analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Various hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, ethers, esters, sulfur-containing
compounds, and terpenes were identified. The most commonly produced
substances were 2-methyl-1- propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol,
3-methylfuran, and dimethyl disulfide. The production was highly
dependent on both medium and species.
Takeo, K., G. S. De Hoog, et al. (1995). Conidial surface
ultrastructure of human-pathogenic and saprobic Cladosporium
species. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 68(1): 51-55.
- Freeze-fracturing of outer wall layers
of Cladosporium conidia revealed two types of ultrastructure,
coinciding with taxonomic characteristics. The outer conidial
layers were essentially smooth in the human pathogenic species,
C. bantianum, C. carrionii, and C.
trichoides. In contrast, mosaic arrays of rodlets on
conidia were observed with freeze-fracturing in the saprobic
species, C. cladosporioides, C. coralloides, C. herbarum,
C. sphaerospermum, and C. variabile. Conidia
of C. elatum were an exception among the saprobic
species as they had smooth surfaces. The present study supports
the suggestion that the human pathogenic Cladosporium
species should be transferred to another genus.
- Under construction.